The "critical point test" (aka "scissors test") requires that if any one item fails, nobody should be injured.
A "bend" is a knot that joins two ropes.
A "hitch" is a type of knot that must be tied around another object.
The "whistle test" requires that if all rescuers let go, nobody should be injured.
A figure 8 follow through is the exact same knot as a figure 8 bight, but the knots are tied using different techniques. The follow-through technique is used when you need to tie into (or around) an existing object. The figure 8 follow through is used, almost exclusively, to tie into a harness.
Start by tying a figure 8 skeleton knot leaving a tail that is a little less than an arm's-length long. Then take the tail and thread it back through the knot, retracing the rope's original route. Dress the knot and leave a tail that is at least fist-width (3-4") long.